The question of intrinsic motivation in adults as part of smoking cessation can not be addressed without mentioning that there are several kinds: extrinsic, or amotivation
The motivation that interests us: the intrinsic appears when different systems interrelate (psychological, cognitive, psychological or neurological) are in homeostasis.
To put this exercise a brief reminder of smoking and the effects of its components will be specified on our health.
I would approach the various stakeholders also factors in the intrinsic motivation and their roles. This reflection can allow smokers in difficulty to discern gaps involved in tobacco addiction.
I would suggest a neuroscientific approach to explain the concept of dependence in smoking cessation.
In conclusion it will be referred to the contribution of hypnosis as a solution.
First, it is necessary to define that they are the motivations that lead to smoking and those that motivate its judgment.
But what is the Smoking?
According to Wikipedia smoking is a medical term acute or chronic intoxication caused by tobacco abuse. By extension, it also means the overall tobacco consumption. It may be specified active smoking as opposed to passive smoking which qualifies the involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke contained in the surrounding air, or inhalation of deposits secondarily airborne (residual smoking). Besides addiction, smoking is responsible for many diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, whether active or passive. Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, making it a major public health problem.
Tobacco is classified as psychotropic, that is to say, it is a minor stimulant of the central nervous system (brain, brainstem and cerebellum). Also nicotine is a psychoactive substance.
The cigarette contains nicotine that during inhalation through the oral, nasal and pulmonary mucosa spread throughout the body and blood reaching neurons in 7 to 10 seconds.
From a psychological point of seen smoking a smoker is synonymous with fun, relaxation and brings a sense of control.
In the social aspect it allows the smoker belonging to a group and allows interaction with its environment.
This consumption willingly joins in rather pleasant circumstances such as after a meal, breaks in the work, at night with friend (s).
This conditioning is anchored the better thanks to the positive emotions experienced by the smoker, and that gesture is a pleasant ritual, remains a Pavlovian conditioning by stimuli / response, the handling of the cigarette package, handling the lighter and the gestural cigarette between the fingers are all stimuli giving a physiological response: the desire to smoke and to create "dependency".
The behaviorist school considers that the behavior overrides the mind plebiscite packaging with extrinsic reinforcement exerted on behavior.
In many experiments on learning, because smoking starts with learning the methodology remains the packaging by the reward system.
The use of hypnosis allows the realization of a draft unconscious choice.
The role of motivation.
Factors extrinsic motivation, intrinsic or under amotivation all three contribute to the success or failure of smoking cessation, the aspect concerning intrinsic motivation requires special resources we will try to explain.
Extrinsic motivation as amotivation concerns the interrelation with various external factors to the subject; or by the external environmental influence, the influence of social or socio-professional group, or by family influence (membership, affiliation).
The subject undergoes external stimuli that landscape then according positivant or alienating schemas that will be stored and can evolve, improve and or reproduce.
For intrinsic motivation is the main resource of the subject. In his personal resources when there is no incongruence. This motivation in the case of the abolition of smoking results from the desire to make a choice consciously (mentalizing), which leaves the behavior (cognitive) brings pleasure, allowing a mental development to achieve a goal (the stop tobacco).
We would argue more precisely the factors of intrinsic motivation in terms of extrinsic and amotivation, The particularity of its formation and that of the subject which develops and its role in tobacco addiction.
What factors from intrinsic motivation involved?
We can cite self-determination:
- The self-determination theory (self-determination, SDT) of Deci and Ryan 2002 *, which addresses the issue of personality development:
"..of Self-regulation, universal psychological needs, life (goals and aspirations), energy and vitality, all the unconscious processes in a set that references the macrotheorie of human motivation."
Intrinsic motivation as part of smoking cessation results from the desire to make a choice consciously (mentalizing), which leaves the behavior (cognitive) brings pleasure, allowing a mental development to achieve a goal: 'smoking abstinence.
Intrinsic motivation has many advantages in the continuum of efforts, since the subject is free in his behavior and is consistent with its values.
Emotion is she involved in the process of smoking, and how to define it?
There are several definitions:
- "Whether base, as defined by the evolutionary current in the work of Darwin: emotions innate, universal and communicative.
-The Theory of Cannon, 1927 presents the nervous system center of emotions. In view of its various definitions we see his close and continuous relationship with our decisions and actions, and they have a role in cognitive learning through the acquisition, storage, information retention and attention according to the study Alvarado, 2002 "(Wikipedia).
-. According to Damasio ("Spinoza was right"), emotions are a natural way to assess in all circumstances the presence of objects that cause emotions, but also the relationships between these objects and the apparatus of the mind demonstrated thought.
We know that the limbic brain manages the operation and management of emotions and has a key role in memory and learning. Whether in part by the hippocampus (memory associated with emotion) or the amygdala and the hypothalamus, the limbic system has a role in the action learning storing and managing emotions.
The emotion involved in behaviors, in situations of fear it will cause leakage or combat (ancestral behaviors that have participated in the survival of the species) acting on the autonomic system
Therefore, the involvement of the limbic system in the learning process in the introduction to group smoking during adolescence becomes important.
We learn neuroscience?
Nicotine stimulates nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the autonomic nervous system (part of the nervous system responsible for functions not subject to voluntary control: smooth muscles of digestion and blood supply, the heart muscles as well as some exocrine and endocrine glands.
Nicotine causes an energy boost by stimulating the release of adrenaline from the adrenal glands.
It stimulates the dopaminergic neurons and causes a release of dopamine in the brain regions. Bringing an anxiolytic effect, an musculosqueletique relaxation.
We know that nicotine mimics the action of a natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine and binds to a specific type of receptors called nicotinic receptor precisely.
Upon discontinuation of the product appears the symptom of addiction.
However if smoking cessation seems to require a strong motivation, it is important to remember that nicotine substance is classified as "very dangerous" by the WHO.
1 cigarette contains 10mg of nicotine which about a tenth inhaled.
WHO stresses that it is still used in some countries as an insecticide, but no longer is in France since March 2009.
1mg / ml of nicotine is deadly in contact with skin and is toxic if ingested.
Why is the use of hypnosis.
I shall not, then, a more analytical approach, orienting itself on the concept of scaffolding by cigarettes or smoking in the object relation, but it is still present in the therapeutic strategy. For now I'll leave it to the use of hypnosis as a tool for those who choose to stop smoking.
For it is indeed a choice that brings positive change.
The freedom of choice is in line with its own values.
We understand that addiction is real and the addition of the conditioning mentioned above, it is stored in memory, but the memory is not archiving but, as we know more, reconstruction.
The latest discoveries in neuroscience informs about the plasticity of the brain, but the results of a study show that hypnosis causes a reconfiguration of the communication between several regions of the brain. (Cojan Y. et al., The Brain under self control : Inhibitory modulation of cortical networks and monitoring During hypnotic paralysis, Neuron, vol 62, pp 862-875, 2009)...
The motor cortex communicates more with a parietal area, the pécunes, associated with the creation of mental images in autobiographical memory and self-representations (what one does not normally see).
Hypnosis allows the person treated, access to mental representations and self-centered attitude (introspection) to find solutions emanate from the subject.
The packaging in smokers is achieved by anchoring a positive, because it is linked to a pleasant emotion, (the pleasure of smoking), the goal is to turn this conditioning loop.
"Hypnosis allows the imagination to anticipate and transform our behaviors and actions. "F.Roustang.
The use of hypnosis allows trans-form harmful habits, why the patient should not "try" to stop smoking, but the "do" ... ..
Then lets do it!
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